REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
The spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C, evolving influenza strains and antibiotic-resistant organisms have put healthcare agencies on guard to avert pending pandemics from these diseases. They have also alerted healthcare professionals to the possibility of the use of viruses and bacteria in bioterrorism threats.
The problem of antimicrobial resistance poses a global threat to the effective treatment of many bacterial diseases. Additionally, the emergence of drug-resistant strains of HIV and hepatitis have jolted the healthcare community out of its relative complacency about the threat of infectious diseases and prompted diagnostic and pharmaceutical manufacturers to bolster their infectious disease pipelines.
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is no longer confined to any one country or to those individuals who are co-infected with HIV. A number of multidrug resistant microbes such as methicillin-resistant Staphalococcus auerus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) that were once found only in hospitals or nursing homes are now active in the community at large.
The rate of HIV infection combined with resistance to existing HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) drugs and the obstacles encountered in developing an AIDS vaccine have resulted in a full-blown pandemic. Further, drug resistance in the treatment of HIV/AIDS necessitates the use of complex dosage protocols with unpleasant side effects that often further debilitate patients.
Solutions to the dilemma of drug resistance involve management approaches on a worldwide scale (such as the implementation of rigorous surveillance of resistant organisms), better education of healthcare workers about appropriate use of antibiotics and closer monitoring of antibiotics used in animal and plant crops.
Combined with these organizational activities is the need for new and effective drugs. New drugs to treat bacterial diseases and HIV/AIDS are being developed, but a new class of drugs to treat bacterial infections has not been developed since 2003, underscoring the need for more development in this area.
SCOPE OF REPORT
This report provides an in-depth look at the emerging pandemic of antibiotic resistance and the established viral pandemic of HIV/AIDS. It also provides historical, epidemiological and market information on hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis and malaria. This report also investigates bacterial and viral diseases that are emerging as health threats because of inadequate or nonexistent preventive and/or therapeutic products to combat them.
Antibiotic-resistant organisms wreak havoc with international healthcare systems as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) and Clostridium difficile (C. diffile) become more pervasive. These infections represent future pandemics if no suitable antibiotics are developed to counteract them. At present, each is problematic, but remains at an epidemic level, primarily within healthcare institutions and nursing facilities. Consequently, these infections are covered descriptively within the report, but are not yet classified as pandemics, nor measured quantitatively as part of the overall market for pandemics.
The report outlines the available preventative and diagnostic products used to combat current and future pandemic infections and projects markets for these products. Forecasts are provided for the diagnostic and pharmaceutical markets for products to treat HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, malaria and tuberculosis. Forecasts and trends are gleaned from industry sources as well as from an assessment of emerging products and technologies.
The causes, the extent of impact and strategies to monitor, treat and prevent resistant diseases are assessed. The mechanisms by which drugs function to combat resistant microbes are described. Drugs that show promise of long-term activity (i.e., low likelihood of resistance) and their effects on the market are assessed.
The data for this report were gathered from primary and secondary sources, including information obtained from industry analysts, manufacturer and company reports, industry trade journals, medical journals and industry associations. Additional information was obtained through the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings, The World Health Organization (WHO), the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the Mayo Clinic, the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturing Association and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS).
Where precise information was not available, projections were made using reasonable assumptions and estimates based on historical data. Market data are based on manufacturers' sales.
This updated version of the pandemic market and technologies will be a valuable tool for decision makers, marketing personnel and manufacturers in both the diagnostic and pharmaceutical treatment industries. Individuals at research foundations, manufacturing companies and university laboratories will find valuable information on the global diagnostic product and pharmaceutical industries.
Peggy S. Lehr is the BCC Research analyst of this report. Ms. Lehr holds a BS in Journalism from the University of Colorado, Boulder, and a MS in Communication from the University of Denver. Ms. Lehr has worked as a researcher, editor and publisher within the publishing industry for both for-profit and not-for-profit organizations.
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The information developed in this report is intended to be as reliable as possible at the time of publication and of a professional nature. This information does not constitute managerial, legal or accounting advice; nor should it serve as a corporate policy guide, laboratory manual or an endorsement of any product, as much of the information is speculative in nature. The author assumes no responsibility for any loss or damage that might result from reliance on the reported information or its use.