Thin Layer Deposition: Ion Implantation and Epitaxy
The total market for ion implantation equipment, services and materials is estimated at $1.05 billion in 2001 and is expected to rise to $3.41 billion in 2006, an average annual growth rate (AAGR) of 26.6%.
By contrast, ion implantation equipment and materials shipments both fell by 49% in 2001, the largest declines ever.
The total market for MBE equipment, services and materials is estimated to be $249 million in 2001, increasing to $1.05 billion in 2006 at an AAGR of 33.3%. Despite economic conditions, MBE equipment and materials shipments increased in 2001.
Spurring growth are the semiconductor merchant wafer markets. These will grow strongly through the period, particularly for thin-film silicon-on-insulator wafers made by ion implantation.
By 2006, the service markets for ion implantation and MBE are expected to be nearly as large as the respective equipment markets.
Ion implantation and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are two of the critical deposition technologies used in semiconductor manufacturing. Implantation also plays an important role in other industrial applications such as enhancing the properties of medical devices and prolonging the life of industrial tooling and components.
There are several key implantation technologies. While beamline ion implantation is well established, the newer plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) process is not yet widely accepted. However, the hybrid ion assisted deposition process, combining ion bombardment with a thin-film coating process such as physical vapor deposition (PVD), is becoming more common.
Several epitaxy technologies exist as well. The two principal processes are metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and MBE. Until about 1995, MOCVD was used almost exclusively for production epitaxial deposition and MBE was primarily an R&D tool. Now, several applications have emerged where MBE is superior to MOCVD, and MBE is being increasingly used in production.
A previous BCC report, GB-186C, entitled, Thin Layer Deposition: report_highlightsing Implantation and Epitaxy, Plasma, Thermal and Ion, was published in October 1996. This report studied a number of thin layer deposition technologies and covered ion implantation, epitaxy as a whole, including both MOCVD and MBE, together with CVD, PVD and thermal spray deposition. Updated reports on CVD, now including MOCVD and PVD were published in 2000. In addition, a 1998 report on high-performance ceramic coatings covered thermal spray, CVD, PVD and other ceramic coating techniques. As BCC has not studied either ion implantation or MBE since 1996, this report is intended as an update on these two technologies.
OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY AND ITS CONTRIBUTION
The principal objective of this study is to review ion implantation and MBE technologies and their applications, and to present a comprehensive analysis of their worldwide markets. To our knowledge, this is the only current published study of either technology, though some parts of the semiconductor implantation market are addressed in other publications.
A more specific goal is to examine the role of PIII compared with beamline ion implantation in each of the markets studied. At present, all production doping of semiconductor integrated circuits is done by beamline implantation, but the potential of PIII for ultrashallow doping and other applications has been promoted extensively. The process also has promise in applications to industrial materials, the purpose for which PIII was originally developed, and industrial PIII equipment is already used in commercial job shops.
Another goal is to separate the market for MBE epitaxial deposition from that for MOCVD epitaxial deposition. These two markets are generally combined. This makes it difficult to obtain strategic information about the more rapidly growing MBE segment.
AUDIENCE FOR THIS REPORT
This report is directed at companies and organizations interested in developments in ion implantation and MBE, including:
- manufacturers and suppliers of equipment for ion implantation and MBE
- companies involved in the development and manufacturing of integrated circuits, including foundries
- manufacturers and suppliers of silicon and compound semiconductor wafers
- providers of ion implantation contract services
- manufacturers of medical devices and equipment
- manufacturers and users of industrial tools, dies, molds and components
- companies involved in manufacturing and supplying advanced materials
SCOPE AND CONTENT OF REPORT
The report covers ion implantation and MBE technologies in depth, including their advantages, current and emerging applications, equipment and materials, and present and future markets. Within each market, forecasts of equipment shipments, services provided, and materials used are presented for the period from 2001 to 2006. A comparison of the year from 2000 to 2001 is included. All major equipment manufacturers and service providers in implantation and MBE are also profiled.
Each market is analyzed in detail. These analyses include product demand, the effect of economic conditions on market growth, manufacturing activity and the influence of other market forces. Market drivers are studied, including demand for implantation or MBE equipment and services. In addition, we discuss any significant trends observed in the industry that relate to the use of technology or materials. One example is the rapidly growing service markets in the semiconductor industry for merchant wafers manufactured by implantation and MBE.
A unique feature of the report is estimates of the present numbers of ion implanters and MBE reactors used for semiconductor production worldwide, by geographic region. The regional distribution of ion implanters and MBE reactors will affect future equipment demand. A feature of the forecasts for semiconductor equipment is a breakdown of shipments by type of implanter such as high current or specialty.
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
The data for this report were obtained primarily from interviews with more than 80 individuals in companies and research institutions engaged in ion implantation or MBE. These include manufacturers of implantation and MBE equipment and materials, service providers, industrial and consumer product manufacturing companies, and industry experts. Other data were obtained from company literature, reports and press releases, as well as technical and trade articles, government publications and the World Wide Web. BCC reports provided additional information.
Ralph B. Alexander, the author of this report, has been involved with ion implantation and other areas of surface engineering for 17 years. After cofounding and running an ion implantation service company, he became an independent consultant in coatings and surface modification processes for industrial applications. His most recent work centers on market analysis and market development. Dr. Alexander received his D.Phil. in physics from Oxford University.
The value of worldwide shipments of PVD equipment reached $3.4 billion by 1999. Shipments are forecast to grow in value by 12.7% and reach $3.9 billion by the end of 2000, and at an average annual rate of 11.3% to reach $6.7 billion by 2005.
The value of materials to be deposited by PVD reached $474.2 million in 1999. It is projected to grow by 13.5% to reach $538.2 million by 2000 and at an average annual rate of 11.9% to reach $943.9 million by 2005.
The value of PVD services totaled $766.9 million in 1999. They will grow in value by 9.4% to reach $838.9 million by 2000 and at an average annual rate of 9.3% to reach $1.3 billion by 2005.
The value of worldwide shipments of CVD equipment reached $3.7 billion by 1999. Shipments are forecast to grow in value by 12.9% and reach $4.2 billion by the end of 2000, and at an average annual rate of 11.0% to reach $7.1 billion by 2005.
The value of materials to be deposited by CVD reached $450.8 million in 1999. It is projected to grow by 12.7% to reach $508 million by 2000 and at an average annual rate of 10.9% to reach $849.7 million by 2005.
The microelectronics industry, encompassing semiconductors, components, and flat panel displays represents the largest market for CVD equipment, materials and services. This sector will grow at an AAGR of about 12% through the forecast period. The growth of materials in this market will be led by dielectric and diamond-like films as device geometries continue to shrink and levels expand.